BarbaroГџa Operation

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The goal of the Finnish forces was, at first, to recapture Finnish Karelia at Lake Ladoga as well as the Karelian Isthmus, which included Finland's second largest city Viipuri.

On 2 July and through the next six days, a rainstorm typical of Belarusian summers slowed the progress of the panzers of Army Group Center, and Soviet defences stiffened.

The army group's ultimate objective was Smolensk , which commanded the road to Moscow. Facing the Germans was an old Soviet defensive line held by six armies.

On 6 July, the Soviets launched a massive counter-attack using the V and VII Mechanized Corps of the 20th Army, [] which collided with the German 39th and 47th Panzer Corps in a battle where the Red Army lost tanks of the 2, employed during five days of ferocious fighting.

Trapped between their pincers were three Soviet armies. On 18 July, the panzer groups came to within ten kilometres 6. Large numbers of Red Army soldiers escaped to stand between the Germans and Moscow as resistance continued.

Four weeks into the campaign, the Germans realized they had grossly underestimated Soviet strength. That meant seizing the industrial center of Kharkov , the Donbass and the oil fields of the Caucasus in the south and the speedy capture of Leningrad, a major center of military production, in the north.

Intelligence reports indicated that the bulk of the Red Army was deployed near Moscow under Semyon Timoshenko for the defense of the capital.

On 29 June Army Norway launched its effort to capture Murmansk in a pincer attack. The northern pincer, conducted by Mountain Corps Norway , approached Murmansk directly by crossing the border at Petsamo.

However, in mid-July after securing the neck of the Rybachy Peninsula and advancing to the Litsa River the German advance was stopped by heavy resistance from the Soviet 14th Army.

Renewed attacks led to nothing, and this front became a stalemate for the remainder of Barbarossa. The German units had great difficulty dealing with the Arctic conditions.

After heavy fighting, Salla was taken on 8 July. To keep the momentum the German-Finnish forces advanced eastwards, until they were stopped at the town of Kayraly by Soviet resistance.

Facing only one division of the Soviet 7th Army it was able to make rapid headway. On 7 August it captured Kestenga while reaching the outskirts of Ukhta.

Large Red Army reinforcements then prevented further gains on both fronts, and the German-Finnish force had to go onto the defensive. The Finnish plan in the south in Karelia was to advance as swiftly as possible to Lake Ladoga, cutting the Soviet forces in half.

Then the Finnish territories east of Lake Ladoga were to be recaptured before the advance along the Karelian Isthmus, including the recapture of Viipuri, commenced.

The Finnish attack was launched on 10 July. The Army of Karelia held a numerical advantage versus the Soviet defenders of the 7th Army and 23rd Army , so it could advance swiftly.

The important road junction at Loimola was captured on 14 July. By 16 July, the first Finnish units reached Lake Ladoga at Koirinoja, achieving the goal of splitting the Soviet forces.

During the rest of July, the Army of Karelia advanced further southeast into Karelia, coming to a halt at the former Finnish-Soviet border at Mansila.

With the Soviet forces cut in half, the attack on the Karelian Isthmus could commence. The Finnish army attempted to encircle large Soviet formations at Sortavala and Hiitola by advancing to the western shores of Lake Ladoga.

By mid-August the encirclement had succeeded and both towns were taken, but many Soviet formations were able to evacuate by sea.

Further west, the attack on Viipuri was launched. With Soviet resistance breaking down, the Finns were able to encircle Viipuri by advancing to the Vuoksi River.

The city itself was taken on 30 August, along with a broad advance on the rest of the Karelian Isthmus. By the beginning of September, Finland had restored its pre- Winter War borders.

By mid-July, the German forces had advanced within a few kilometers of Kiev below the Pripyat Marshes. The 1st Panzer Group then went south, while the 17th Army struck east and trapped three Soviet armies near Uman.

The two panzer armies now trapped four Soviet armies and parts of two others. By August, as the serviceability and the quantity of the Luftwaffe's inventory steadily diminished due to combat, demand for air support only increased as the VVS recovered.

The Luftwaffe found itself struggling to maintain local air superiority. The VVS, although faced with the same weather difficulties, had a clear advantage thanks to the prewar experience with cold-weather flying, and the fact that they were operating from intact airbases and airports.

On 8 August, the Panzers broke through the Soviet defences. By the end of August, 4th Panzer Group had penetrated to within 48 kilometres 30 miles of Leningrad.

The Finns [q] had pushed southeast on both sides of Lake Ladoga to reach the old Finnish-Soviet frontier.

The Germans attacked Leningrad in August ; in the following three "black months" of , , residents of the city worked to build the city's fortifications as fighting continued, while , others joined the ranks of the Red Army.

The Germans severed the railroads to Moscow and captured the railroad to Murmansk with Finnish assistance to inaugurate the start of a siege that would last for over two years.

At this stage, Hitler ordered the final destruction of Leningrad with no prisoners taken, and on 9 September, Army Group North began the final push.

Within ten days it had advanced within 11 kilometres 6. Hitler, now out of patience, ordered that Leningrad should not be stormed, but rather starved into submission.

Before an attack on Moscow could begin, operations in Kiev needed to be finished. Half of Army Group Center had swung to the south in the back of the Kiev position, while Army Group South moved to the north from its Dnieper bridgehead.

A battle ensued in which the Soviets were hammered with tanks, artillery, and aerial bombardment. After ten days of vicious fighting, the Germans claimed , Soviet soldiers captured, although the real figure is probably around , prisoners.

After operations at Kiev were successfully concluded, Army Group South advanced east and south to capture the industrial Donbass region and the Crimea.

The Soviet Southern Front launched an attack on 26 September with two armies on the northern shores of the Sea of Azov against elements of the German 11th Army , which was simultaneously advancing into the Crimea.

By 7 October the Soviet 9th and 18th Armies were isolated and four days later they had been annihilated. The Soviet defeat was total; , men captured, tanks destroyed or captured in the pocket alone as well as artillery pieces of all types.

Kleist's 1st Panzer Army took the Donbass region that same month. A large encirclement from the north and the south trapped the defending Soviet corps and allowed XXXVI Corps to advance further to the east.

On 6 September the first defence line at the Voyta River was breached, but further attacks against the main line at the Verman River failed.

The United States of America applied diplomatic pressure on Finland to not disrupt Allied aid shipments to the Soviet Union, which caused the Finnish government to halt the advance on the Murmansk railway.

With the Finnish refusal to conduct further offensive operations and German inability to do so alone, the German-Finnish effort in central and northern Finland came to an end.

Germany had pressured Finland to enlarge its offensive activities in Karelia to aid the Germans in their Leningrad operation. Finnish attacks on Leningrad itself remained limited.

Finland stopped its advance just short of Leningrad and had no intentions to attack the city. The situation was different in eastern Karelia.

On 4 September this new drive was launched on a broad front. Albeit reinforced by fresh reserve troops, heavy losses elsewhere on the front meant that the Soviet defenders of the 7th Army were not able to resist the Finnish advance.

Olonets was taken on 5 September. On 7 September, Finnish forward units reached the Svir River. From there the Army of Karelia moved north along the shores of Lake Onega to secure the remaining area west of Lake Onega, while simultaneously establishing a defensive position along the Svir River.

Slowed by winter's onset they nevertheless continued to advance slowly during the following weeks. Medvezhyegorsk was captured on 5 December and Povenets fell the next day.

On 7 December Finland called a stop to all offensive operations, going onto the defensive. After Kiev, the Red Army no longer outnumbered the Germans and there were no more trained reserves directly available.

To defend Moscow, Stalin could field , men in 83 divisions, but no more than 25 divisions were fully effective. Operation Typhoon, the drive to Moscow, began on 30 September To the north, the 3rd and 4th Panzer Armies attacked Vyazma , trapping the 19th, 20th, 24th and 32nd Armies.

The pocket eventually yielded over , Soviet prisoners, bringing the tally since the start of the invasion to three million. The Soviets now had only 90, men and tanks left for the defense of Moscow.

The German government now publicly predicted the imminent capture of Moscow and convinced foreign correspondents of an impending Soviet collapse.

Almost from the beginning of Operation Typhoon, however, the weather worsened. Temperatures fell while there was continued rainfall. This turned the unpaved road network into mud and slowed the German advance on Moscow.

The pause gave the Soviets, far better supplied, time to consolidate their positions and organize formations of newly activated reservists. These had been freed from the Soviet Far East after Soviet intelligence assured Stalin that there was no longer a threat from the Japanese.

With the ground hardening due to the cold weather, [r] the Germans resumed the attack on Moscow on 15 November. Facing the Germans were the 5th, 16th, 30th, 43rd, 49th, and 50th Soviet Armies.

The Germans intended to move the 3rd and 4th Panzer Armies across the Moscow Canal and envelop Moscow from the northeast. The 2nd Panzer Group would attack Tula and then close on Moscow from the south.

In two weeks of fighting, lacking sufficient fuel and ammunition, the Germans slowly crept towards Moscow. In the south, the 2nd Panzer Group was being blocked.

On 22 November, Soviet Siberian units, augmented by the 49th and 50th Soviet Armies, attacked the 2nd Panzer Group and inflicted a defeat on the Germans.

The 4th Panzer Group pushed the Soviet 16th Army back, however, and succeeded in crossing the Moscow Canal in an attempt to encircle Moscow.

They were so close that German officers claimed they could see the spires of the Kremlin , [] but by then the first blizzards had begun.

It captured the bridge over the Moscow-Volga Canal as well as the railway station, which marked the easternmost advance of German forces.

The German forces fared worse, with deep snow further hindering equipment and mobility. With the failure of the Battle of Moscow , all German plans for a quick defeat of the Soviet Union had to be revised.

The Soviet counter-offensives in December caused heavy casualties on both sides, but ultimately eliminated the German threat to Moscow.

On 31 March , less than one year after the invasion of the Soviet Union, the Wehrmacht was reduced to fielding 58 offensively capable divisions.

Spurred on by the successful defense and in an effort to imitate the Germans, Stalin wanted to begin his own counteroffensive, not just against the German forces around Moscow, but against their armies in the north and south.

The Soviet Union had suffered heavily from the conflict, losing huge tracts of territory, and vast losses in men and material.

Nonetheless, the Red Army proved capable of countering the German offensives, particularly as the Germans began experiencing irreplaceable shortages in manpower, armaments, provisions, and fuel.

Hitler, having realized that Germany's oil supply was "severely depleted", [] aimed to capture the oil fields of Baku in an offensive, codenamed Case Blue.

By , Soviet armaments production was fully operational and increasingly outproducing the German war economy. The Soviets prevailed.

Even if the Soviets had signed, it is highly unlikely that this would have stopped the Nazis' genocidal policies towards combatants, civilians, and prisoners of war.

Before the war, Hitler issued the notorious Commissar Order , which called for all Soviet political commissars taken prisoner at the front to be shot immediately without trial.

Collective punishment was authorized against partisan attacks; if a perpetrator could not be quickly identified, then burning villages and mass executions were considered acceptable reprisals.

Organized crimes against civilians, including women and children, were carried out on a huge scale by the German police and military forces, as well as the local collaborators.

Holocaust historian Raul Hilberg puts the number of Jews murdered by "mobile killing operations" at 1,, According to a post-war report by Prince Veli Kajum Khan, they were imprisoned in concentration camps in terrible conditions, where those deemed to have "Mongolian" features were murdered daily.

Asians were also targeted by the Einsatzgruppen and were the subjects of lethal medical experiments and murder at a "pathological institute" in Kiev.

Burning houses suspected of being partisan meeting places and poisoning water wells became common practice for soldiers of the German 9th Army.

At Kharkov , the fourth largest city in the Soviet Union, food was provided only to the small number of civilians who worked for the Germans, with the rest designated to slowly starve.

The citizens of Leningrad were subjected to heavy bombardment and a siege that would last days and starve more than a million people to death, of whom approximately , were children below the age of Some desperate citizens resorted to cannibalism; Soviet records list 2, people arrested for "the use of human meat as food" during the siege, of them during the first winter of — Rape was a widespread phenomenon in the East as German soldiers regularly committed violent sexual acts against Soviet women.

Operation Barbarossa was the largest military operation in history — more men, tanks, guns and aircraft were deployed than in any other offensive.

Operation Barbarossa and the subsequent German defeat changed the political landscape of Europe, dividing it into Eastern and Western blocs.

As a result, the Soviets instigated the creation of "an elaborate system of buffer and client states, designed to insulate the Soviet Union from any possible future attack.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Ritter von Leeb Ion Antonescu C. Operation Barbarossa. Eastern Front. Main article: Racial policy of Nazi Germany.

Main article: Germany—Soviet Union relations, — We only have to kick in the door and the whole rotten structure will come crashing down.

Reichskommissariat Ostland. Reichskommissariat Ukraine. Reichskommissariat Kaukasus. Reichskommissariat Moskowien.

Reichskommissariat Turkestan. See also: Soviet war documents declassification. Main article: Order of battle for Operation Barbarossa.

Main article: Axis and Soviet air operations during Operation Barbarossa. Main article: Baltic Operation. See also: Operation München and Battle of Brody Main article: Continuation War.

Further information: Battle of Smolensk and Leningrad Operation Main article: Operation Silver Fox. Main article: Battle of Uman. Main article: Siege of Leningrad.

Main article: Battle of Kiev Main article: Battle of the Sea of Azov. Main article: Finnish invasion of East Karelia Main article: Battle of Moscow.

See also: Wartime sexual violence and War crimes of the Wehrmacht. Askey , p. Bloomsbury Publishing. Chapter: "Opposing Armies". But all the same there was a definite delay in the opening of our Russian Campaign.

Furthermore we had had a very wet spring; the Bug and its tributaries were at flood level until well into May and the nearby ground was swampy and almost impassable.

Günther Blumentritt, von Rundstedt. The Soldier and the Man London, , p. A fifth military district, the Leningrad military district , became the Northern Front.

Glantz , pp. Composition of Opposing Forces, 22 June Appendix: Table A. Table A. Askey, Nigel London: Pearson Longman.

Fall Political Science Quarterly. London: Palgrave Macmillan. New York and Oxford: Facts on File. Wehrmacht und sexuelle Gewalt.

Sexualverbrechen vor deutschen Militärgerichten, — in German. Paderborn: Schöningh Verlag. The Second World War.

On 22 June Germany invaded the Soviet Union. Codenamed Operation Barbarossa, it was the largest military operation in history, involving more than 3 million Axis troops and 3, tanks.

It was the logical culmination of Hitler 's belief that the German 'master race' should seek 'lebensraum' living space in the east, at the expense of the 'subhuman' native Slav people, who were to be exterminated or reduced to serf status.

Planning for Barbarossa had begun over a year previously, in the wake of Germany's stunning success against the western allies in France.

The triumphalism that followed this victory, combined with widely believed reports that the Soviet armed forces were weak and deficient evidence came from defeats by Finland in led to great optimism in the German high command, with Hitler declaring, 'we have only to kick in the door and the whole rotten structure will come crashing down.

The Soviet Union was unprepared for the onslaught that came in June. Stalin refused to believe mounting evidence that an invasion was being prepared, and so his armies and air force on the frontier were caught by surprise.

As in their earlier victories, the Luftwaffe quickly gained air superiority and helped armoured columns and motorised infantry punch holes through the Soviet front line.

Barbarossa had three primary objectives — the Baltic States and Leningrad in the north, Moscow in the centre, and the economic resources of the Ukraine and southern Russia in the south.

On August 23, , Germany and the Soviet Union signed the German-Soviet nonaggression pact, but Hitler regarded it a tactical maneuver that would prevent the Soviets from attacking him until he was ready to attack.

Hitler decided to attack the Soviet Union the following year and therefore began planning for the attack. During the winter, German commanders negotiated the deployment of special troops behind the frontlines to annihilate the communists, the Jews, and others they believed would oppose German rule.

On June 22, , Germany attacked the Soviets with divisions in the front line and 73 more as backup.

Three million German soldiers and a further , soldiers from the Axis powers including Finland, Romania, Slovakia, Italy, and Hungary made one of the most massive invasions in history.

The front line stretched from the Black Sea in the south to the Baltic Sea in the north. For months the Soviets had ignored the warnings from fellow Allied powers concerning the buildup of troops along its borders.

The Soviet forces were caught unaware, and most of the Soviet fighting planes were destroyed on the ground. The Germans quickly overwhelmed the Soviets, surrounding their units and cutting off supply lines.

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